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Europe and the Middle East: In the Shadow of September 11

Richard Youngs
Europe and the Middle East: In the Shadow of September 11
ISBN: 978-1-58826-476-3
ISBN: 978-1-62637-027-2
2006/256 pages/LC: 2006011924
Studies on the European Polity

"Present[s] a comprehensive overview of EU Middle East policy from 11 September 2001 until early 2006.... A very thought-provoking book." —Lars Erslev Andersen, International Journal of Middle East Studies

"This is a real contribution, lucidly organized and extremely well informed. It provides the sort of detailed survey of European policies toward the region since 9/11 that simply has not been done elsewhere."—Gerd Nonneman, Lancaster University

"A definitive work, timely and insightful, on the evolution of the EU's and its member states' policies toward the Middle East."—Robert Springborg, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)


In the wake of September 11, the European Union proclaimed a new commitment to encouraging processes of political liberalization in the Middle East, and a plethora of initiatives were introduced to that end. Richard Youngs offers a thorough analysis of the policies actually followed by the EU—by national governments, as well as collectively—in the intervening several years.

Drawing on official documents and extensive interviews with key policymakers, Youngs assesses EU policies implemented throughout the Middle East: in Iraq, Iran, the Maghreb and Mashreq, the Palestinian Territories, the Gulf states, and Turkey. His analysis sheds light not only on the EU's strengths and weaknesses as an international actor, but also on the impact of external factors on political change and on the hotly debated topic of the relationship between democracy and security.


Richard Youngs is senior researcher at the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE)in Madrid and lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick, UK. His most recent publications include International Democracy and the West: The Role of Governments, NGOs and Multinationals and The European Union and the Promotion of Democracy: Europe's Mediterranean and East Asian Policies.


  • European Challenges in the Middle East After September 11.
  • Iraq: Europe's Nemesis.
  • Iran: The End of the Affair.
  • The Maghreb and Mashreq: New Directions.
  • Palestine: State Building in Hard Times.
  • The Gulf: Not-So-Benign Neglect.
  • Turkey: Success and Its Malcontents.
  • Conclusion: Europe in the Middle East.