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Info Ops: From World War I to the Twitter Era

Ofer Fridman, Vitaly Kabernik, and Francesca Granelli, editors
Info Ops: From World War I to the Twitter Era
ISBN: 978-1-62637-995-4
ISBN: 978-1-955055-000
2022/287 pages/LC: 2021023050
"An important contribution.... The insights are fresh, fascinating, and, for practitioners, actionable." —James. P. Farwell, Middle East Institute


Since antiquity, information has been used in conflict—to deceive, to demoralize, to sow fear among enemy troops. Not until the twentieth century, though, did information operations become so central to war. In Info Ops, the authors assess the evolving role and increasing relevance of information operations from the leaflet bombardments of World War I to the present digital age.


Ofer Fridman is director of operations at the Centre for Strategic Communications (CSC), King's College London. Vitaly Kabernik is a division head in the Department of Innovative Development at Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University). Francesca Granelli is visiting senior lecturer at King's College London.


  • The Nature of Information Operations—the Editors.
  • British "Front Propaganda" in World War I—O. Fridman.
  • Soviet Information Operations in World War II—V. Kabernik.
  • Inducement Strategies in the Vietnam War—A. Winn.
  • Soviet Propaganda in the War in Afghanistan, 1979–1989—I. Orlov and M. Mironyuk.
  • NATO's Information Campaigns in Afghanistan, 2003–2021—B. Boudreau.
  • Russian and Georgian Operations in South Ossetia, August 7-12, 2008—M. Mironyuk et al.
  • Hamas's Strategy Against Israel: From Information Ops to Influence Ops—M. Milstein.
  • Israel's Information Operations in Gaza: The Rise of the Digital Age—R. Schulman and D. Siman-Tov.
  • The Future of Information Operations—F. Granelli.