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Mongolia’s Foreign Policy: Navigating a Changing World

Alicia Campi
Mongolia’s Foreign Policy: Navigating a Changing World
ISBN: 978-1-62637-782-0
ISBN: 978-1-62637-802-5
2019/349 pages/LC: 2018048638
"A richly informative survey of Mongolian foreign policy since the country’s transition in 1990 from communism to a troubled but still functioning democracy." —Andrew Nathan, Foreign Affairs

"A superb study of the challenges and responses of liberated and democratic Mongolia.... Campi gives voice to the dilemmas facing this strategically positioned nation.... A must read."—Robert Bedeski, University of Victoria


Strategically located at the crossroads of Central Asia, China, and Russia, Mongolia has long attracted the attention of major world powers. How has this traditionally nomadic, but resource rich, country used a "Wolf Strategy" to establish its own place in the modern world? What challenges does it now face? Answering these questions, Alicia Campi provides a multifaceted examination of the context, formulation, and execution of contemporary Mongolian foreign policy.


Alicia Campi is president of the Mongolia Society. A former US State Department foreign service officer, she now teaches at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies and the Foreign Service Institute.


  • Introduction.
  • A Brief History of Mongolia.
  • The White Horse Democratic Revolution.
  • Searching for a "Third Neighbor."
  • Building a New Economy Through Donor Aid.
  • China Replaces Russia.
  • Mineral Development: Blessing and Curse.
  • Resource Nationalism: Boom Days and Collapse.
  • "Wolf Strategy" Energy Policy: A New Form of Resource Nationalism?
  • An Economic Corridor for Regional and Continental Integration.
  • New Soft-Power Image Making.
  • New Strategies for a New Era.
  • Future Options.